Agriculture & Food Security

Agriculture & Food Security
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Keywords:

Lesotho, climate change, food security, water, drought

Schlagwörter:

Lesotho, Klimawandel, Ernährungssicherung, Wasser, Dürre

Weblink:

http://www.usnews.com/news/best-countries/articles/2016-07-25/climate-change-sheds-new-light-on-lesothos-water-deal-with-south-africa

Abstract:

Lesotho, a small mountain kingdom surrounded by South Africa was one of the nations hardest hit by the 2015 drought that caused Southern Africa's driest growing season in 35 years. The El Niño driven-phenomenon sparked a 47 percent drop in maize production, the country's staple food, during the spring harvest. At least 709,394 people – close to 50 percent of the population – are estimated to need food assistance through April 2017, according to the United Nations. For the people of Lesotho, called the Basotho, a lack of rain doesn't just mean crop failure and less food. It means the taps run dry and the rivers shrink, endangering livestock and forcing people to drink from riskier sources, leading to illness. It also means more attention to what some consider a cruel irony: Lesotho actually has plenty of water – it's just sending much of it to South Africa. The Katse Dam, the second-largest water barrier in Africa, is part of a controversial development project called the Lesotho Highlands Water Project, the biggest water transfer scheme on the continent and one of the largest of its kind in the world.

Keywords: DR Kongo, Katanga, climate change, agriculture, heavy rains, El Niño

Schlagwörter: Madagaskar, Katanga, Klimawandel, Landwirtschaft, Starkregen, El Niño

Weblink:

http://www.irinnews.org/news/2016/04/01/hunger-replaces-war-congo%E2%80%99s-katanga

Abstract:

The separatist rebels that had caused years of chaos in this southeastern corner of the Democratic Republic of the Congo were pacified. The people who had fled their homes were back farming. The rains on which they depend were on time. But then the rains just didn’t stop. This season it poured – sometimes three times a day. The seeds diligently planted rotted underground. As a result up to 40,000 people are at risk of going hungry just in this small area of Katanga Province, according to Marrios Bwana Ngoshi Ilunga, of the NGO Solidarités International. Across the DRC as a whole, 550,000 people have been affected by rains and flooding between October and March as a result of an El Niño year. Three years ago, this region was known as the “triangle of death” – but for a very different reason. The Bakata-Katanga rebels, claiming to fight for the independence of mineral-rich Katanga, were busy looting and burning down villages, killing their inhabitants and forcibly recruiting others, in a swathe of territory between Pweto, Mitwaba and Manono. A series of offensives by the national army last year destroyed several rebel camps, weakening them. The number of displaced fell to 309,000 in 2015, as people began to return home, hopeful that a government amnesty for the rebels and a disarmament programme would succeed. In Kilangwa village, south of Kanyoka, there is already kwashiorkor – a severe form of protein-energy deficiency – among the children as a result of the failure of the bean and maize harvest.  

Schlagwörter: Mauritius, Klimawandel, Ernährungssicherung, Landwirtschaft, Wetteranalysen

Keywords: Mauritius, climate change, food security, agriculture, weather metrics

Weblink:

http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJCCSM-12-2012-0079
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/IJCCSM-12-2012-0079

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to delve into an extensive analysis of different food crops, ranging from bananas, beans, brinjals, cabbages, chillies, creepers, groundnuts, mixed vegetables, pineapples and tomatoes, over three decades. To maintain an ever-increasing population level, much stress is exerted on the production of food crops. However, till date, very little is known about how climate change is influencing the production of food crops in Mauritius, an upper-income developing country found in the Indian Ocean and highly vulnerable to climate risks. Based on the interactions between production of crops, harvest area for crops and weather metrics, a vector autoregressive model (VAR) system is applied comprising production of each crop with their respective harvest area. Weather metrics are then entered into as exogeneous components of the model.

The underlying rationale is that weather metrics are not caused by production or harvest area and should thereby be exogeneously treated. Should there be cointegration between the endogenous components, the vector error correction model (VECM) will be used. Diagnostic tests will also be entertained in terms of ensuring the endogeneity states of the presumed variables under investigation. The impact of harvest area on product is plain, as higher the harvest area, the higher is the production. However, a bi-directional causality can also manifest in the case that higher production leads towards lower harvest area in the next period as land is being made to rest to restore its nutrients to enable stable land productivity over time. Other dynamics could also be present. In case cointegration prevails, VECM will be used as the econometric model.

The VAR/VECM approach is applied by virtue of the fact that traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation approach will be biased and susceptible to trigger off unreliable results. Results show weather metrics do influence the production of crops in Mauritius, with cyclone being particularly harmful for tomatoes, chillies and creepers. Temperature is found to trail behind bearish impacts on tomatoes and cabbages production, but positive impacts in case of bananas, brinjals and pineapples productions, whereas humidity enhances production of beans, creepers and groundnuts. Evidence is found in favour of production being mainly governed by harvest area. Overall, the study points out the need of weather derivatives in view of hedging against crop damages, let alone initiation of adaptation strategies to undermine the adverse effects of climate change.  

Keywords: Madagascar, climate change, food security, livelihoods, drought

Schlagwörter: Madagaskar, Klimawandel, Ernährungssicherung, livelihoods, Dürre

Weblink:

http://www.irinnews.org/feature/2016/06/21/crisis-%E2%80%98lost-ocean%E2%80%99

Schlagwörter: Tansania, Kilimanjaro Region, Landwirtschaft, Regen, Dürre

Keywords: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro Region, agriculture, rainfall, drought

Weblink: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/IJCCSM-07-2013-0094

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show how climatic change in Africa is expected to lead to a higher occurrence of severe droughts in semiarid and arid ecosystems. Understanding how crop productions react to such events is, thus, crucial for addressing future challenges for food security and poverty alleviation. The authors explored how temperature and rainfall patterns determined maize and beans production in Hai District in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Annual food crops were particularly sensitive to the drought and maize and beans yields were lower than perennial crops during the years of drought. The authors also report strong and significant association between maize and beans production with temperature and rainfall patterns.  

Schlagworte: Südafrika, Klimawandel, Landwirtschaft, Ernährungssicherung

Keywords: South Africa, Climate Change, Agriculture, Food Security

Weblink:

http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/discussionpapers/2013-12
http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/discussionpapers/2013-12/file

Abstract:

The projected changes in planted area, yield per area, net exports/imports and priced for five major agricultural crops in South Africa were simulated using the projections of four Global Circulation Models (GCMs) under three socio-economic scenarios. The GCM runs were those undertaken for the IPCC fourth assessment report. They show consistent strong warming over the subcontinent, but disagree with respect to future precipitation, from slight wetting (particularly on the eastern side) to overall slight drying. The future crop yields were simulated using the DSSAT crop model suite. The planted area, commodity prices and net exports were simulated using the IMPACT global food trade model.

Schlagwörter: SÜDAFRIKA; KLIMAWANDEL; REGENFÄLLE; WASSER; LANDWIRTSCHAFT; WIRTSCHAFT

Keywords: South Africa, climate change, rainfall, water, agriculture, economy

Weblink:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265074602_CLIMATE_CHANGE_AND_SOUTH_AFRICAN_AGRICULTURE_IMPACTS_AND_ADAPTATION_OPTIONS

Abstract:

Statistical evidence suggests that South Africa has been getting hotter over the past four decades, with average yearly temperatures increasing by 0.13°C a decade between 1960 and 2003, with relatively higher levels for the fall, winter and summer periods. There has also been an increase in the number of warmer days and a decrease in the number of cooler days. Moreover, the average rainfall in the country is very low, estimated at 450mm per year – well below the world’s average of 860mm per year – while evaporation is comparatively high. In addition, surface and underground water are very limited, with more than 50% of the available water resources being used for only 10% of the country’s agricultural activities. Climate change, which may make temperatures climb and reduce the rains and change their timing, may therefore put more pressure on the country’s scarce water resources, with implications for agriculture, employment and food security.